Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Thursday, May 21, 2009


Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve studying and working with matter on an ultra-small scale. It is the study of the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. It deals with structures of the size of 100 nanometers or smaller and involves developing materials or device s within that size.

The application of nanoscience in a number of different harmless consumer products is seen widely.

Sunscreens utilize nanoparticles zinc oxide.

Clay nanoparticles have made their way into composite materials, where they offer transparency and increased strength.

Anti-aging skin creams developed with nanoparticles.

Nanoparticles are used in antiseptics.

As abrasives in paints.

Coatings for spectacles making them scratch-proof and unbreakable.

Self-cleaning coating for windows.

Scratch-proof tiles.

Anti-graffiti coatings for walls.

For improved ski waxes.

Tuesday, May 12, 2009


The best ideas in science are often so simple that, once they are conceived, it is hard to imagine why nobody thought of them before. This appears to be the case with a proposal to change the height of the rice plant’s panicles in the canopy. The panicles are the parts of the rice plant that bear the spike lets, which in turn form the grain. The yield of the rice plant depends on the amount of starch that fills the grains. This in turn depends primarily on the process of photosynthesis occurring in the leaves. Photosynthesis requires sunlight as a source of energy. But the architecture of rice plants places the panicles high in the canopy, which some of the leaves, paradoxically, are in the shade and thus obviously not in the best position for maximum photosynthesis to occur. This is true not only of traditional rice plants, but also of modern cultivars had two serious faults. What was needed was to lower the panicles in the canopy so they no longer shaded the leaves.
When the yields are increased on a plant with panicles high in the canopy, the extra weight of the grains causes the plant s to fall over (lodge), especially when it rains and the wind blows. But if the panicles were lowered, this tendency would be reduced because the center of gravity of the plant would be lowered.

Monday, May 11, 2009


Thirty-five years ago, the Ford and Rockefeller foundations of the USA in cooperation with the Government of Philippines, set in motion an unprecedented global experiment. Together they established a research center to unite within a developing country the talents of international and national scientists to raise the yield of the world’s most important food crop, rice. Rice was the staple food for 90 % of the world’s poor people, and the goal was to avert what was widely seen as an imminent threat of mass starvation among them.
The research center, of course, was International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). A statement of its first director, Robert F. Chandler, Jr., in IRRI’s first annual report (1961-62), exemplifies the visionary spirit that animated the Institute from the beginning. Dr. Chandler wrote that it should be possible to produce a rice plant with the characteristics needed for the necessary increased yield within five years. Only four years later, IRRI had done just that, with IR8. The new variety followed by many others, triggered the Green Revolution, which led to a doubling of rice production throughout Asia and saved hundreds of millions of lives.

Sunday, May 3, 2009

Disk Storage
· 1 Bit = Binary Digit
· 8 Bits = 1 Byte
· 1000 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte
· 1000 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte
· 1000 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte
· 1000 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte
· 1000 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte
· 1000 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte
· 1000 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte
· 1000 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte
· 1000 Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte
· 1000 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte
Processor or Virtual Storage
· 1 Bit = Binary Digit
· 8 Bits = 1 Byte
· 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte
· 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte
· 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte
· 1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte
· 1024 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte
· 1024 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte
· 1024 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte
· 1024 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte
· 1024 Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte
· 1024 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte
Megabytes, Gigabytes, Terabytes… What Are They?
These terms are usually used in the world of computing to describe disk space, or data storage space, and system memory. For instance, just a few years ago we were describing hard drive space using the term Megabytes. Today, Gigabytes is the most common term being used to describe the size of a hard drive. In the not so distant future, Terabyte will be a common term. But what are they? This is where it gets quite confusing because there are at least three accepted definitions of each term.
According to the IBM Dictionary of computing, when used to describe disk storage capacity, a megabyte is 1,000,000 bytes in decimal notation. But when the term megabyte is used for real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the 20th power or 1,048,576 bytes is the appropriate notation. According to the Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary, a megabyte means either 1,000,000 bytes or 1,048,576 bytes. According to Eric S. Raymond in The New Hacker's Dictionary, a megabyte is always 1,048,576 bytes on the argument that bytes should naturally be computed in powers of two. So which definition do most people conform to?
When referring to a megabyte for disk storage, the hard drive manufacturers use the standard that a megabyte is 1,000,000 bytes. This means that when you buy an 80 Gigabyte Hard drive you will get a total of 80,000,000,000 bytes of available storage. This is where it gets confusing because Windows uses the 1,048,576 byte rule so when you look at the Windows drive properties an 80 Gigabyte drive will report a capacity of 74.56 Gigabytes and a 250 Gigabyte drive will only yield 232 Gigabytes of available storage space. Anybody confused yet? With three accepted definitions, there will always be some confusion so I will try to simplify the definitions a little.
The 1000 can be replaced with 1024 and still be correct using the other acceptable standards. Both of these standards are correct depending on what type of storage you are referring.